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Weekend Studying For Monetary Planners (Could 7-8) 2022


Government Abstract

Benefit from the present installment of “Weekend Studying For Monetary Planners” – this week’s version kicks off with the information that amid a wave of mergers, the variety of broker-dealers has declined through the previous few years, in accordance with a report from FINRA. And whereas broker-dealers are additionally seeing a decline within the variety of their registered representatives, their earnings have really ticked larger up to now few years, maybe supported by robust market efficiency buoying their rising fee-based enterprise. On the identical time, the variety of RIAs continues to develop, suggesting that the shift towards advice-centric, relatively than product-centric, enterprise fashions is continuous!

Additionally in business information this week:

  • For the most important unbiased broker-dealers, fee-based revenues now make up a majority of whole income (with commissions accounting for simply 34%) in accordance with a current survey, representing a dramatic shift from only a decade in the past, when commissions made up nearly all of income.
  • Why FINRA is contemplating elevating the limitations for retail traders to buy a variety of “complicated” investments, doubtlessly together with leveraged and inverse ETFs

From there, we’ve got a number of articles on business research:

  • A current examine reveals that advisors at RIAs are likely to concentrate on expense ratios relatively than current efficiency when choosing mutual funds for consumer portfolios, main to higher outcomes than each broker-dealer registered representatives and twin registrants, who’re extra probably to decide on costlier, lively mutual funds
  • A Cerulli examine signifies that in a world of low inventory and bond returns, advisors are more and more contemplating various asset lessons to generate revenue for purchasers
  • How an advice-only enterprise mannequin can permit advisors to be extra artistic with their service choices and attain a wider vary of potential purchasers

We even have various articles on retirement planning:

  • The professionals and cons of utilizing a Certified Longevity Annuity Contract (QLAC) to insure purchasers towards longevity threat whereas deferring some RMDs
  • Why purchasers with long-term care insurance policies could quickly see premium will increase and the way advisors may also help these purchasers analyze their choices
  • Why deliberate modifications to “Conventional” Medicare might make it look extra like Medicare Benefit and the way advisory purchasers is perhaps affected

We wrap up with three closing articles, all about how one’s persona can have an effect on their wealth:

  • How sure persona sorts are correlated with elevated lifetime earnings among the many common inhabitants, and why the traits that result in success for monetary advisors is perhaps totally different
  • How the persona traits related to ‘self-made’ millionaires differ from those that inherited their wealth, and why these traits might have an effect on consumer habits
  • Why sure traits are related to the flexibility to separate ‘monetary BS’ from genuinely profound recommendation

Benefit from the ‘mild’ studying!

Adam Van Deusen Headshot

Writer: Adam Van Deusen

Staff Kitces

Adam is an Affiliate Monetary Planning Nerd at Kitces.com. He beforehand labored at a monetary planning agency in Bethesda, Maryland, and as a journalist protecting the banking and insurance coverage industries. Outdoors of labor, he serves as a volunteer monetary planner and sophistication teacher for non-profits within the Northern Virginia space. He has an MA from Johns Hopkins College and a BA from the College of Virginia.

Learn extra of Adam’s articles right here.

(Andrew Welsch | Barron’s)

Simply as there was a wave of merger and acquisition exercise amongst RIAs up to now few years, broker-dealers have seen the same pattern, with giant nationwide and regional brokerages shopping for up their smaller counterparts. And at a time of accelerating know-how and compliance prices, in addition to growing competitors from fee-only RIAs, there have been declines in each the variety of broker-dealers and their registered representatives.

In keeping with FINRA’s 2022 Trade Snapshot, there have been 3,394 broker-dealers registered with FINRA in 2021, down 41 from 2020 (with 150 corporations leaving the business and 109 corporations getting into) and a decline of 1,432 corporations since 2017 amid the wave of consolidation. Additional, the business has seen the variety of its registered representatives shrink as properly, falling to 612,457 final yr from 617,531 the yr earlier than (representing about 44,000 departures from the business and 39,000 newcomers). Along with consolidation, the expansion of RIAs has probably contributed to those developments as properly, with the variety of RIAs rising to 31,669 in 2021 from 29,600 in 2017.

However the declining variety of broker-dealers and registered representatives, business revenues rose through the interval, with mixture income for FINRA-registered corporations growing to $398.5 billion from $361.9 billion in 2020. As well as, pre-tax web revenue elevated in 2021 to $91.8 billion from $77.3 billion in 2020, maybe because of efficiencies created from business consolidation and/or robust inventory market returns in 2021 that contributed to fee-based revenue.

So whereas the brokerage business continues to herald wholesome earnings, its declining headcount and the simultaneous development of RIAs through the interval counsel that an advice-centric, relatively than product-centric, method is more and more seen as a pretty choice for a lot of registered representatives. And these advisors have a variety of platforms to select from, each for individuals who need to stay within the broker-dealer area and for individuals who need to make the leap to an RIA!

(Bruce Kelly | InvestmentNews)

Historically, broker-dealers introduced in most of their income by commissions generated from the sale of funding merchandise. However with the expansion of on-line platforms and significantly decreased buying and selling charges that permit shoppers to handle their very own investments, in addition to the expansion of fee-only RIAs, and regulatory actions, such because the introduction of the SEC’s Regulation Greatest Curiosity, have made producing income by commissions more difficult.

The truth is, in accordance with an InvestmentNews survey, in 2021 charges comprised 54% of income from the highest 25 unbiased broker-dealers surveyed, with 34% of income coming from commissions, and 12% coming from different sources (primarily generated from interest-rate spreads). It is a stark distinction to how these corporations operated beforehand; for instance, in 2013 commissions accounted for 52% of income, with charges solely accounting for 34%. And this shift has been worthwhile, with advisors at six unbiased broker-dealers bringing in a mean of not less than $500,000 in charges and commissions in 2021.

One of many drivers of the fee-based revenues (usually taken as a proportion of property underneath administration) was probably the robust inventory market efficiency in 2021, with the S&P 500 returning 28.7%, together with dividends. And whereas the adverse fairness returns thus far in 2022 might scale back these AUM charges, revenues might be buoyed by rising rates of interest, which profit broker-dealers by elevated margin rates of interest and higher interest-rate spreads on consumer money holdings in cash market accounts.

In the long run, the survey outcomes replicate the rising attractiveness of an advice-centric method for advisors throughout business platforms. And so, as Regulation Greatest Curiosity has made it tougher for RIAs (which have historically been advice-centric fiduciaries) to distinguish themselves from the broker-dealer competitors, it’s changing into more and more obligatory for advisors at RIAs to transcend differentiating themselves not solely on their price construction and requirements of conduct, but additionally by prioritizing what purchasers need most from their advisor and on the providers they supply for purchasers!

(Sam Potter and Katie Greifeld | Monetary Advisor)

The variety of exchange-traded merchandise has exploded within the final a number of years, transferring from easy index Change-Traded Funds (ETFs) to far more complicated merchandise. And whereas extra opaque investments have been historically restricted to accredited traders (who meet sure revenue or asset necessities), these new ETFs can be found to all, no matter their property or funding information. And whereas the worth of index ETFs can assuredly decline, the newer merchandise (reminiscent of leveraged and inverse ETFs) have the potential to result in far more important losses.

And so, FINRA issued a regulatory discover in March calling for feedback on whether or not the limitations must be raised on investing in a variety of exchange-traded merchandise, probably together with leveraged and inverse automobiles, cryptocurrency-linked funds, and defined-outcome methods. These limitations might doubtlessly embrace enhanced disclosures, a “information examine” for retail clients, a requirement to hunt FINRA approval for the promoting of complicated merchandise, controls on push notifications on digital units, and heightened supervision of funding suggestions.

Proponents of enhanced necessities for the highlighted funding automobiles counsel that self-directed retail traders are behind the increase in recognition of those merchandise and lots of of them won’t perceive the potential dangers concerned, doubtlessly placing a big quantity of capital in danger. Nonetheless, different observers counsel that will probably be troublesome to measure an investor’s information and the corporations who produce the merchandise counsel that the investments are being unfairly singled out and that any guidelines might doubtlessly apply to a broad vary of funding merchandise.

So whereas it stays to be seen whether or not FINRA will take any motion on this subject (the remark interval ends on Could 9), advisors may also help purchasers who is perhaps all in favour of complicated funding merchandise to grasp their dangers and whether or not they’re acceptable given the purchasers’ funding methods and threat tolerance. As a result of whereas many of those merchandise would possibly look enticing when markets act of their favor, the draw back will be important!

(Ginger Szala | ThinkAdvisor)

For funding advisors, there are lots of methods to evaluate whether or not a selected mutual fund is perhaps acceptable for a consumer. From contemplating whether or not it’s actively or passively managed, to its expense ratio, to its current and historic efficiency, there are lots of dimensions from which to decide on. And up to date analysis signifies that the kind of agency an advisor works for influences this determination.

In keeping with the examine “Does Advisor Channel Affect Passive Fund Selection” by Michael Finke, Aron Szapiro, and David Blanchett, advisors at RIAs favor extra salient traits reminiscent of expense ratios, whereas representatives from broker-dealers and twin registrants are extra probably to make use of current returns and lively funding methods. The authors surveyed a complete of 459 advisors from the three kinds of corporations and located that one-third of advisors with RIAs construct consumer portfolios primarily with passive investments, greater than twice the share of broker-dealer representatives and twin registrants. The examine concludes that as a result of the expense ratio is an important attribute predicting future returns, advisors at RIAs who concentrate on expense ratios and implement a passive funding technique are likely to outperform their counterparts.

Apparently, whereas twin registrants act as fiduciaries when offering funding recommendation to people, their fund preferences didn’t differ from broker-dealer representatives throughout a variety of traits. The authors counsel that it’s because they function inside a brokerage ecosystem that will affect how they’re educated to pick fund investments and develop an funding technique (i.e., such coaching would possibly encourage the usage of actively managed funds which have a revenue-sharing settlement with the advisor’s guardian agency).

The important thing level is that advisors with RIAs seem to enhance consumer funding outcomes by specializing in the expense ratios of mutual funds and implementing a passive funding technique. And whereas twin registrants theoretically straddle the road between RIA advisors and their broker-dealer counterparts, the examine reveals that their funding preferences extra carefully resemble the latter (maybe signaling the significance of differentiating them from advisors who act as fiduciaries always!).

(Karen DeMasters | Monetary Advisor)

When setting up a portfolio, together with property which have non-correlated efficiency may also help regular returns and dampen portfolio volatility. And whereas shares and bonds have traditionally been largely uncorrelated, 2022 has introduced sharp declines to each asset lessons. And so, some advisors look like turning to various funding lessons in an try to generate returns and revenue for his or her purchasers.

In keeping with a report from monetary providers analysis and consulting agency Cerulli Associates, various mutual funds gathered constructive web flows throughout March and added $200 billion in web flows within the first quarter, whereas mutual fund property have been comparatively flat and have been down greater than 6% by March. Among the many various asset lessons seeing development are non-traded actual property, interval funds, and enterprise improvement corporations, which collectively held virtually $300 billion in property on the finish of 2021, up sharply from $176 billion on the finish of 2020.

And in accordance with a Cerulli survey taken final yr, 59% of advisors utilizing options have been doing so to create present revenue for his or her purchasers. Notably, whereas these various investments have the potential to generate returns and revenue at a time when conventional asset lessons are weaker, they’ll include drawbacks, reminiscent of illiquidity and better charges, that may not make them acceptable for some purchasers.

In the end, whereas a interval of adverse returns for each shares and bonds will be difficult for advisors and their purchasers, the choice to take a position consumer property in options requires analysis (to first decide how the asset class works) and consideration of the charges and liquidity concerned. As well as, this present interval might be a superb time for advisors to emphasize take a look at consumer portfolios to make sure that they proceed to be positioned to fulfill their purchasers’ targets!

(Jeff Benjamin | InvestmentNews)

Funding administration has historically been on the middle of economic advisory providers. In prior many years, shoppers had no selection however to undergo a dealer to take a position. However because of regular enhancements in know-how, traders have the choice to take a position on their very own (and profit from transaction prices approaching zero!). And whereas many shoppers nonetheless search skilled funding recommendation, advisors may also attain “DIY” traders by adjusting their price mannequin and focusing their providers on different areas of economic planning.

For instance, whereas a person would possibly really feel snug managing their funding portfolio, they may have questions on claiming Social Safety, training planning, or property planning methods. And whereas a few of these purchasers would possibly need an ongoing relationship, others would possibly need to have their issues addressed by irregular conferences or on a challenge foundation.

With this in thoughts, providing an advice-only service permits advisors to be extra artistic with their charges and attain a wider vary of potential purchasers (who won’t have ample property to be served by different advisors). Whereas charging AUM-based charges stays the predominant price construction for advisors to handle investments, advice-only advisors have a variety of choices, from hourly planning charges, to ongoing retainers, to project-based billing. And advisors who need to cost for recommendation would not have to show down purchasers who’re all in favour of funding recommendation; in these circumstances, the advisor might cost a separate price for funding administration providers (which might merely entail making portfolio suggestions for the consumer to implement themselves relatively than managing consumer funds immediately by a custodian).

The important thing level is that for advisors who’re much less all in favour of funding administration and need a extra versatile enterprise mannequin, an advice-only method can permit them to serve purchasers whose wants align with the advisor’s personal experience and skill to offer worth!

(Christine Benz | Morningstar)

With life expectancy growing through the previous few many years, many retirees are involved about longevity threat, or the chance that they’ll outlive their property. This leads some retirees to make use of assured revenue merchandise, reminiscent of annuities, to scale back the chance {that a} market downturn might imperil their retirement spending. And for retirees with property in certified accounts (e.g., Conventional IRAs or 401(okay)s), a certified longevity annuity contract (QLAC) might be a possible answer.

QLACs are a type of deferred annuity, the place a person makes an upfront cost in return for a hard and fast cost at a later age. For instance, a 70-year-old retiree might buy a QLAC as we speak and start receiving funds at age 80 (and the funds they obtain at the moment shall be bigger than in the event that they bought an instantaneous mounted annuity and started receiving funds as we speak). What makes QLACs totally different from different deferred annuities is that they’re bought utilizing funds from a professional account, and people funds are faraway from Required Minimal Distribution (RMD) calculations as soon as the retiree reaches RMD age (thereby doubtlessly lowering their tax invoice within the years earlier than QLAC funds start). As soon as annuity funds start, the retiree pays atypical revenue tax on the funds. Notably, a person is restricted within the quantity they’ll contribute to a QLAC – as much as 25% of their portfolio or $145,000, whichever is much less.

So whereas QLACs have many potential advantages, together with addressing longevity threat and providing a tax profit, they arrive with drawbacks as properly. For instance, as a result of a QLAC is a hard and fast annuity, it comes with inflation threat (this may be addressed with a rider, however this can decrease the cost quantity). Additionally, the retiree faces insurance-company threat (as they won’t obtain funds till a number of years after buying the QLAC). As well as, one of many dangers of any deferred annuity is that the retiree might die earlier than receiving any advantages or quickly after funds start (although their beneficiaries might obtain a payout if a period-certain annuity was bought).

As well as, the tax financial savings on RMDs won’t be well worth the foregone development had the property used to buy the QLAC been invested (provided that the retiree won’t stay lengthy sufficient to obtain ample funds to even match the principal used to buy the QLAC). Additional, the accelerated funds of a QLAC in later years can deplete a professional account even sooner than regular RMDs would have anyway!

In the end, the important thing level is that whereas a QLAC represents a possible means for retirees to handle longevity threat, the tax advantages alone won’t make it the best choice for a given consumer. For advisors, a consumer’s life expectancy, property, revenue wants, tax scenario, and property targets are all issues that may be taken under consideration earlier than buying a QLAC or different longevity annuity.

(Allison Bell | ThinkAdvisor)

Each long-term care insurance coverage (LTCI) corporations and people they insure have seen dramatic modifications over the previous a number of years. Amid falling rates of interest and greater-than-expected claims exercise, the LTCI market has shifted considerably. This has led to important premium will increase, each for newly bought insurance policies and for individuals who had been paying premiums for a few years. Notably, these premium will increase have to be authorised by every particular person state, which is left to stability the necessity for insurers to stay solvent towards the flexibility of shoppers to deal with the premium will increase.

In an try to facilitate state evaluations of premium enhance requests from insurers, members of the Nationwide Affiliation of Insurance coverage Commissioners (a bunch of state insurance coverage regulators) voted in April to undertake the Lengthy-Time period Care Insurance coverage Multistate Actuarial Assessment Framework, underneath which states that select to take action can get assist from a workforce of skilled LTCI actuaries with analyzing charge enhance purposes. This might velocity up the method of software critiques and enhance the consistency of the ultimate outcomes. Nonetheless, as a result of some LTCI issuers have been ready for the framework to be launched to ask for premium will increase, policyholders might see a flurry of latest LTCI charge will increase within the close to future.

And so, advisors with purchasers which have LTCI insurance policies may also help them discover their choices to take care of any charge enhance. For individuals who can afford the elevated funds, persevering with to pay on a present coverage is usually a greater worth than buying a brand new one (that are priced primarily based on the up to date rate of interest and use assumptions), however it may be value checking charges with different insurers. However in these circumstances the place the premium enhance makes the insurance coverage unaffordable, advisors may also help purchasers discover choices to change and/or scale back protection to keep up the unique premiums. Usually, lowering the profit interval, or the speed on the inflation rider (significantly for older purchasers), represents higher choices than lowering the day by day profit quantity.

The important thing level is that long-time LTCI policyholders proceed to bear the brunt of the insurance coverage corporations’ authentic mispricing of the insurance policies and will expertise additional premium will increase. That mentioned, advisors may also help information purchasers by assessing their potential LTCI wants and find out how to finest stability premium will increase inside their broader monetary plan.

(Mark Miller | Morningstar)

Those that get their medical insurance by Medicare have two choices: “Conventional” Medicare, which is a fee-for-service program the place healthcare suppliers invoice Medicare immediately; and Medicare Benefit, a managed-care various run by non-public corporations. And whereas Medicare Benefit plans have turn out to be more and more standard thanks partly to their usually low premiums and extra providers provided, people in these plans are usually steered towards in-network suppliers, which will be restricted in sure areas.

However now, the Facilities for Medicare and Medicaid Providers (CMS) has introduced deliberate modifications that might make conventional Medicare look extra like Medicare Benefit. Below the plan, Medicare will enter into contracts with Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs), healthcare supplier teams that can obtain a flat annual cost to offer take care of enrollees in conventional Medicare.

Proponents counsel that the plan will incentivize the ACOs to work collectively as groups to offer complete take care of sufferers, and that the plan might result in decreased prices for the Medicare program by paying a flat price per enrollee relatively than being charged for every process. However, skeptics of the plan counsel that the plan might result in lower-quality service for enrollees in conventional Medicare, as a result of the flat charges they obtain will incentivize the ACOs (which are sometimes owned by for-profit traders) to chop prices the place attainable.

Medicare officers have mentioned they count on all conventional Medicare beneficiaries to be in ACOs by 2030, and people people will obtain a letter from CMS informing them whether or not their present healthcare supplier is a part of an ACO. And so, advisors will be looking out for purchasers elevating issues about their Medicare advantages and medical suppliers, significantly as a part of a broader dialog throughout Medicare’s open enrollment interval on the finish of the yr.

(Miriam Gensowski | Harvard Enterprise Assessment)

The “Huge 5” theoretical psychology framework analyzes a person’s persona throughout 5 dimensions: extraversion, conscientiousness, openness to expertise, agreeableness, and neuroticism. This framework has been used to discover how a person’s distinctive persona is expounded to all the pieces from tutorial achievement to marriage success to criminality. One explicit space of focus has been the connection between a person’s persona and their revenue.

Gensowski sought to discover this relationship by persona and revenue information for a bunch of 595 males whose revenue was tracked between the ages of 18 and 75 (it is usually value noting that the examine started in 1922 and the boys surveyed have been all within the prime 0.5% of the inhabitants in IQ). By controlling for quite a lot of elements, she discovered that males who have been extra extraverted on common earned $600,000 over the course of their profession (about 15% of lifetime earnings) than a extra introverted peer. And this impact was equally giant for conscientiousness. However, males who have been extra agreeable earned about $270,000 much less over a lifetime than the common man. Additional, these results solely started to appear at age 30, and solely totally unfolded as the boys entered their prime working years, between the ages of 40 and 60 (maybe as the boys entered higher-paying managerial jobs).

Given the restrictions of this analysis (e.g., solely finding out males in quite a lot of industries who have been of their prime working years a number of many years in the past), it’s value exploring whether or not these results are seen as we speak amongst monetary advisors. In keeping with Kitces Analysis, whereas nearly all of advisors are extraverted, it seems the largest traits that outlined the longest-standing and highest-income advisors are being extremely conscientious and really agreeable (however not essentially extraverted!). As well as, the outcomes of the analysis counsel that one of many greatest “deal-breaker” traits for achievement as a monetary advisor is that they will need to have very low neuroticism (i.e., particularly excessive emotional calm).

After all, these analysis outcomes symbolize developments throughout the studied inhabitants, so having a selected persona kind doesn’t exclude a person from having success in monetary advising or one other subject. And so, in actuality, it is perhaps most essential to maximise what your persona kind has to supply and to work to develop the endurance, focus, and grit that always result in skilled success!

(John Anderer | Research Finds)

There are a variety of things related to private wealth, from years of training to selection of occupation. On the identical time, researchers have thought-about whether or not extra innate traits, reminiscent of persona kind, are additionally associated to the wealth a person accumulates over their lifetime. And in accordance with researchers finding out German millionaires, a sure “wealthy” persona profile was related to excessive wealth.

In keeping with their examine, millionaires tended to have larger threat tolerance, emotional stability, openness, extraversion, and conscientiousness. The truth is, the nearer a person’s persona tracked this profile, the extra probably they have been to be wealthier. The researchers additionally discovered that this impact was extra distinguished amongst “self-made” millionaires than those that inherited their wealth, suggesting that the “wealthy” persona profile was really a contributor to wealth era versus growing because of having wealth.

After all, whereas the researchers discovered that this persona profile was related to wealth era, it doesn’t essentially imply that everybody with this profile will essentially turn out to be rich. For instance, having excessive threat tolerance is related to constructive elements reminiscent of entrepreneurship and inventory possession, but additionally with overly optimistic decision-making and losses because of corruption.

The important thing level is that understanding consumer persona traits is usually a helpful train for advisors, from assessing their funding threat tolerance to their retirement revenue preferences, which may also help them higher perceive their purchasers and the way finest to construct a monetary plan that’s in sync with their persona kind!

(Mario Kienzler, Daniel Västfjäll, Gustav Tinghög | Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Finance)

The world of economic recommendation is filled with maxims and jargon, which will be complicated for shoppers (and generally for advisors as properly!). And whereas a lot of this recommendation is correct, or not less than made in good religion, a few of it’s made in unhealthy religion (usually by these making an attempt to promote a product) and will be thought-about ‘monetary BS’.

With this in thoughts, Kienzler, Västfjäll, and Tinghög got down to see how good shoppers are at detecting monetary BS and which kinds of people are most prone to it. They created a scale that included precise profound statements (e.g., William Feather’s “A price range tells us what we are able to’t afford, however it doesn’t hold us from shopping for it”) in addition to made-up, pseudo-profound statements (e.g., “An affordable mortgage is past all new future” and “Your cash transforms common actions”). They then performed a web-based survey of Individuals to see how properly they may determine which statements have been really profound and which have been monetary BS.

The excellent news was that just about all of these surveyed (86%) might distinguish real monetary statements from BS to some extent. Nonetheless, there was variability on this capacity, and those that have been significantly weak to monetary BS have been extra more likely to be younger, male, have a better revenue, and be overconfident relating to their very own monetary information. And whereas the flexibility to detect BS was associated to a number of constructive skills, reminiscent of larger goal monetary information, these people additionally felt extra insecure about their funds.

In the case of in search of monetary recommendation, the quantity of potential jargon used will be intimidating for a lot of shoppers, which may cause them to keep away from participating a monetary skilled for worry of being judged. The necessity to stability readability with technical particulars additionally will increase the significance for advisors of explaining the “how” of what they do along with the “what” to reveal their worth to prospects and purchasers. And because the outcomes confirmed that these with larger incomes have been extra prone to monetary BS, advisors working with higher-income purchasers pays cautious consideration that they’re explaining their course of and recommendation in a transparent and truthful means (and supply context to information these purchasers away from pseudo-profound recommendation and merchandise they may encounter)!


We hope you loved the studying! Please depart a remark under to share your ideas, or make a suggestion of any articles you assume we should always spotlight in a future column!

Within the meantime, should you’re all in favour of extra information and knowledge relating to advisor know-how, we might extremely advocate testing Craig Iskowitz’s “Wealth Administration As we speak” weblog, in addition to Gavin Spitzner’s “Wealth Administration Weekly” weblog.

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