Editors’ be aware: When this put up was first revealed the x-axis labels on chart 2 and three have been incorrect, and the y-axis label was incorrect on chart 4. The charts have been corrected. 9:47 a.m. ET, July 12.
The financial disruptions related to the COVID-19 pandemic sparked a world dash-for-cash as buyers offered securities quickly. This promoting stress occurred throughout superior sovereign bond markets and triggered a deterioration in market functioning, resulting in quite a few central financial institution actions. On this put up, we spotlight outcomes from a current paper wherein we present that these disruptions occurred disproportionately within the U.S. Treasury market and provide explanations for why buyers’ promoting pressures have been extra pronounced and broad-based on this market than in different sovereign bond markets.
The COVID-19 Pandemic Triggered Market Disruptions throughout Sovereign Bond Markets
In the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic in late February 2020, and in response to the financial repercussions of impending lockdown measures, buyers started to demand higher-quality, protected belongings. Particularly, they shifted their portfolios towards sovereign bonds, and the ensuing shopping for stress drove sovereign yields to say no broadly. Because the disaster intensified in March 2020, nonetheless, buyers’ demand for money surged, resulting in promoting stress on sovereign bonds and subsequently will increase of their yields. This down-and-up sample in yields is illustrated for ten-year U.S., German, U.Ok., and Japanese bonds within the chart beneath.
Cumulative Yield Modifications throughout Sovereign Bond Markets
Alongside these modifications in yields, sovereign bond liquidity deteriorated considerably in March 2020. For instance, bid-ask spreads elevated for U.S., German, U.Ok., and Japan ten-year sovereign bonds over late February and March 2020 (see the chart beneath).
The Unfold between Bid and Ask Yields throughout Sovereign Bond Markets
Though promoting pressures materialized for sovereign bonds broadly in March 2020, buying and selling situations within the U.S. Treasury markets noticed the biggest affect. For instance, the deterioration within the bid-ask unfold, normalized by its historic common, was extra pronounced for U.S. Treasuries than for German, U.Ok., and Japan sovereign bonds (see the chart beneath), whereas usually the normalized bid-ask unfold of U.S. Treasuries is decrease and extra secure than these of German, U.Ok., and Japan sovereign bonds.
The Normalized Unfold between Bid and Ask Yields throughout Sovereign Bond Markets
Promoting Pressures Had been Disproportionately Better within the U.S. Treasury Market
The breadth and depth of promoting pressures throughout investor sorts through the COVID-19 shock was extra extreme in U.S. Treasuries than in different main sovereign bond markets, partly due to the U.S. greenback’s dominant standing as each an funding and funding foreign money.
Whereas central banks offered reserves denominated in all main currencies, gross sales of U.S. greenback belongings have been disproportionately higher. Certainly, gross sales of U.S. greenback reserves have been estimated to account for greater than 80 p.c of whole reserves gross sales, effectively in extra of the U.S. greenback’s roughly 60 p.c share of international alternate reserves.
Non-public investor gross sales have been additionally extra pronounced in U.S. Treasuries than in different sovereign bonds. Information on investor transactions and holdings of sovereign bonds in Japan and Italy recommend that bond gross sales in March 2020 have been principally from international buyers, as home nonbank buyers—together with asset managers, insurers, and pension funds—appeared to both add to sovereign bond positions or stay roughly impartial (see chart beneath). In distinction, promoting pressures within the U.S. Treasury market have been broad-based, as each international buyers and U.S. home mutual funds—which maintain a major share of marketable Treasury holdings—have been giant web sellers of U.S. Treasuries within the first quarter of 2020.
Purchases of Japanese and Italian Sovereign Bonds by Investor Kind in March 2020
In the meantime, banks in international jurisdictions appeared to play a a lot bigger function in absorbing investor gross sales than banks in america. Information from Japan and Italy present heavy web purchases from banks that helped offset international gross sales (see the chart above). In distinction, U.S. banks have been modest web sellers of U.S. Treasuries within the first quarter of 2020.
Larger Leverage Underpinned Bigger Promoting Pressures in Treasuries
Variations within the provide of securities and the buildup of Treasuries by levered entities reminiscent of relative worth hedge funds have been additionally components driving heavier web gross sales of U.S. Treasuries in early 2020. From the beginning of 2017 to proper earlier than the March 2020 shock, U.S. Treasury securities (excluding these held within the Federal Reserve’s System Open Market Account) elevated by greater than $3 trillion, whereas development in different jurisdictions was both modest (the U.Ok. and France) or destructive (Germany and Japan). Heavy Treasury issuance, amongst different components, contributed to a notable absorption of U.S. Treasuries by levered funds, rendering Treasuries significantly extra susceptible to speedy deleveraging through the March shock. Suggestions from international market members famous that leveraged funds’ participation in sovereign bond markets was not as giant within the run-up to the disaster.
Market Microstructure Variations Had been Much less Consequential
In our paper, we additionally discover the extent to which variations in bond market buildings might have amplified or mitigated strains. We discover that these components—together with market-maker obligations, the share of nonbank liquidity provision, the diploma of central versus bilateral clearing, and the prevalence of digital versus voice buying and selling—might have performed a modest function however weren’t main sources of differentiation within the functioning of sovereign bond markets in early 2020.
Though buyers offered all kinds of belongings through the COVID-19 pandemic, market functioning for U.S. Treasuries deteriorated disproportionately as in comparison with different sovereign bonds. We argue that the comparatively higher decline in Treasury market functioning was attributable to pronounced and broad-based promoting pressures, which have been pushed primarily by the greenback’s dominant standing as an funding and funding foreign money in addition to the big presence of levered entities within the Treasury market in early 2020.
Questions stay about how effectively the Treasury market will take in future promoting pressures from a broad base of buyers. A major change within the Treasury market since March 2020 is the Federal Reserve’s introduction of the Standing Repo Facility and the FIMA Repo Facility. These liquidity amenities permit eligible counterparties to alternate Treasuries for money at an administered charge. As a secure supply of funding, these new packages may attenuate the necessity for gross sales throughout liquidity shocks, serving to to clean market functioning.
Moreover, the Treasury market might bear important modifications. Recommended modifications embrace the growth of central clearing, the registration of energetic buying and selling companies engaged in buying and promoting of securities as sellers with the SEC, enhanced oversight of buying and selling platforms, and enhancements within the high quality of knowledge reporting.
Jordan Barone is a capital markets buying and selling principal within the Federal Reserve Financial institution of New York’s Markets Group.
Alain Chaboud is a senior financial undertaking supervisor within the Program Course Part on the Federal Reserve Board.
Adam Copeland is a monetary analysis advisor within the Federal Reserve Financial institution of New York’s Analysis and Statistics Group.
Cullen Kavoussi is a coverage and market monitoring principal within the Financial institution’s Markets Group.
Frank Keane is a coverage advisor within the Financial institution’s Markets Group.
Seth Searls is an affiliate director within the Financial institution’s Markets Group.
How you can cite this put up:
Jordan Barone, Alain Chaboud, Adam Copeland, Cullen Kavoussi, Frank Keane, and Seth Searls, “The International Sprint for Money in March 2020,” Federal Reserve Financial institution of New York Liberty Avenue Economics, July 12, 2022, https://libertystreeteconomics.newyorkfed.org/2022/07/the-global-dash-for-cash-in-march-2020/.
The views expressed on this put up are these of the creator(s) and don’t essentially mirror the place of the Federal Reserve Financial institution of New York or the Federal Reserve System. Any errors or omissions are the duty of the creator(s).